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The Workers on Projects

It must be clear at the start of projects who will do what. In any case, three core positions need to be filled in. In addition, the project must have the correct organizational position in relation to the permanent organization (s).

In the daily functioning of organizations, a natural course of events usually develops. This's impossible for projects, which by definition are one-off. It must become clear in advance who will do what.

Three core positions need to be filled: that of the client, the project leader and the project employees

The client is the person who will or will have the results of the project used. He creates the necessary conditions and makes "continue / adjust / stop" decisions. Standard consultative bodies rarely provide the specifically required contributions and commitment. Moreover, a one-person commissioning is often preferable.

The project leader ensures that the intended results of the project are actually achieved. He uses his powers, takes initiatives and leads. In addition, he maintains active relations with and between the client and other relevant parties. The project leader must be able to balance between subject matter expertise and management skills, and between methodical discipline and humanity.

Project employees carry out their tasks within the plans and contribute their expertise to this end. They feel jointly responsible for the result and involved in the work. Project employees use their willingness and skills, whether or not in a team. They usually also fulfill a function outside the project. They must therefore be able to work with more than one boss.

In addition, the project must have the correct organizational position in relation to the permanent organization (s). This can vary not only per project, but even per phase within it. In a dependent organization for the project, almost all management tasks, responsibilities and powers rest with the management of the permanent organization (s). Variants are:


1. the coordination structure: a (part-time) project leader, with hardly any operational power. In this structure, the project leader only ensures coordination between project employees. They contribute from their own departments
2. the consultation structure: in consultation, chefs allocate work for the project among their employees, or the project leader consults directly with them. A dependent organization is suitable if:
- acceptance of the results by the permanent organization (s) is most important
- direct management of the project is less important
3. in an independent organization for the project, the project leader is assigned his own capacity sources, such as man hours, resources and / or systems. An independent organization is suitable if:
- the results are most important
- the direct management of the project is very important.

A permanent organization is different...

Each project has its own organization. This's intertwined with the permanent organization (s) that usually initiated the project. Nevertheless, there are differences, which inevitably lead to tensions.

Projects are usually initiated by (an) organization (s). These permanent organization (s) and the organization for the project are intertwined.

Yet they differ in structure, personnel, management style, systems, culture and strategy. The accompanying image illustrates these differences. The differences manifest themselves as inevitable and natural tensions.

To step


1. Check which concrete differences there are
2. Do any significance to those differences by:
- changing
- compensating
- ignoring them
3. Adjust the organization for the project to:
- the possibilities of the permanent organization (s)
- the importance of the project
4. Record this in the organization management plan or the program plan

Points of attention:

- learning from tensions for the future
- avoid redundancies in procedures
- employees who also work in the permanent organization (s), among others, select for flexibility

Determine the desired organizational form

Each project has its own organization. This's intertwined with the permanent organization that usually initiated the project. It's important to coordinate the organization for the project with the permanent organization (s).

Projects are usually initiated by an organization. This permanent organization and the organization for the project are intertwined. The organization for the project must be aligned with the permanent organization (s). The distribution of influence on the project is particularly important.

To step

1. Determine:
- the stakeholders of the project
- the size, direction and strength of their interest
2. Organize the client with his tasks, responsibilities and powers
3. Appoint the project leader with his duties, responsibilities and powers
4. Appoint the project staff with their tasks, responsibilities and powers
5. Coordinate things clearly with the stakeholders
6. Record this in the organization management plan or the program plan.

Points of attention:

- the 'not invented here' syndrome may be responsible for resistance
- an organization for a project is by definition changeable, but controlled
- a vital project easily gains acceptance and therefore power

Man the three core positions of a project

Each unique assignment has three core positions. These are the client, the project leader and the project employee. Each must meet certain requirements. That's why careful manning is required.

Three core positions can be distinguished in each project. The client, the project leader and the project employee must each meet certain requirements.

- The client wants the result. He must have the motivation, mindset and capabilities to achieve it
- The project leader is involved. He's capable and determined to deliver the result
- The project employee loves his job and does what he has to do.

To step

1. Find the right client:
- what does he want?
- is his intrinsic involvement sufficient?
- can he enforce what's needed within this unique assignment?
2. Select the right project leader:
- are his competencies sufficient?
- is he sufficiently independent?
- does he really want to live up to it?
3. Appoint the right project staff:
- are their competencies adequate?
- are they sufficiently prepared and available?
- is there a good working climate?

Points of attention

- The client may not be a multi-headed monster
- The content of the project leader doesn't have to be the best in class
- The project employee shouldn't want to represent the interests of "his" departmentMan the three core positions of a project

Fill in the role of the client

The main cause of failure of projects is bad or missing commissioning. It's therefore crucial to appoint the right person as the client.

Each project (or program) needs one client. Naming or designating someone as such is a crucial decision. Missing or poorly completed commissioning causes more unique assignments to fail than any other circumstance. The client is preferably one person. This can, will and may enable the implementation of the unique assignment.

Requirements

A good client:

- makes clear to all those involved the inescapable importance of the unique assignment
- always has the last word on the unique assignment
- keeps involvement, also emotional, and continues to show it to everyone involved
- ensures that the project leader has all the necessary resources
- let the project continue, adjust or stop as required
- accepts the burdens and benefits and is willing to take risks
- is sometimes awake

Points of attention:

- a good client chooses a good project leader
- the client is the support and support of the project leader
- the client takes care of the material and intangible resources; so power, motivation and pleasure are also important

Tasks of the client

One of the three core positions for unique assignments is that of the client. His duties are specified.

The client is the person who will use the results of the unique assignment. He creates the necessary conditions and makes 'continue / adjust / stop' decisions.

Tasks of the client are:

- get off to a good start
- to describe the goals and the result of the unique assignment
- ensure that the unique assignment is embedded in the permanent organization (s) and is covered
- select and support the contractor
- make agreements about interim and phase or stage reports
- approve the interim results
- decide on progress in the interim
- regularly check whether all those involved still have the same picture of the assignment
- decide on unexpected, necessary interim changes, inside and outside the margins
- ensure support in the relevant environment
- shield the workers and the task itself from unwanted, disruptive influences from the environment
- determine who will use, manage or maintain the results
- end the exercise.

Fill in the project leader position

The project or program manager has a complex function. He usually shares (managerial) responsibilities and powers with others, both within and outside the project or program assignment.

The project or program manager of a project or program often shares responsibilities and powers with others. Those others may or may not be involved in the assignment. Moreover, they don't necessarily have a higher rank in the permanent organization (s). In addition, the assignment staff, to whom the project or program manager leads, are often several in their field.

Requirements

A good project or program manager:

1. combines several properties:
- goal orientation (for a program) or result orientation (for a project)
- great tenacity
- ambition
- independence
- dares to break through restrictive and obstructive procedures
2. is sufficiently competent in several areas:
- leadership: steering and supporting
- material: knowing laws and avoiding one-sidedness
- approach: having experience, skills and proven abilities
- attitude: 'wanting' enough; being motivated

Points of attention:

- you aren't just a professional project or program manager
- a good manager never surprises his client
- assignment staff need space

Tasks of the project manager

One of the three core positions for unique assignments is that of the project / program leader. His duties are specified.

The project / program manager ensures that the intended results of the project or the program assignment are actually achieved. He uses his powers, takes initiatives and leads. In addition, he maintains active relations with and between the client and other relevant parties.

Tasks of the project / program leader are:

- support team members
- maintain contact with the client
- initiate activities
- coordinate substantive activities, including those initiated and performed elsewhere
- ensure that substantive activities are carried out
- maintain relationships with and between the departments of the contributing organizational units
- participate in the realization of plans
- monitor the progress of the implementation, and leave instruments and adjustments to others
- unsubscribe and chair meetings
- parties regularly draw attention to the unique assignment and the importance of the contribution of themselves, their department or their organization
- collect partial reports from the departments and / or organizations
- merge the partial reports into a progress report and decision-making proposals for the client.

Project leader: (sub) know your own leadership style

In order to keep progress in a project and to coordinate the work, project leadership is required. According to the literature, there's no need for the role of project leader in the more or less permanent teams, such as many scrum teams. In those cases there's often talk of shared leadership. But the majority of projects are made up of team members who have a limited amount of working time available for the project. As a result, shared leadership is actually not possible or useful. In order to maintain progress and coordinate and coordinate the work, someone needs to take on the role of project leader.

Now it appears that many project leaders aren't very aware of their own style, while that's advisable, because that knowledge helps to improve their own way of working, but also gives a language to others' own style (team and client ) to communicate. It also helps the project leader to consider weaknesses that need to be compensated by others. Putting it into perspective that multiple styles are productive may also prevent the project leader from suffering from 'style arrogance', 'there is only one good style, and that's mine...'.

The characterization of the five leadership styles

The five styles are derived from the Klavertje4 'where the heart is the content and that brings us to the first project leader style: the passionate expert. This's aimed at the best solution. Characteristic words associated with this style are, for example: facts, analysis, substantive debate, source research, testing, precise, thorough. This project leader inspires people with a good substantive story.

Attention to the method is central to the project leader as the reliable organizer. This's aimed at delivering the agreed result. Characteristic words associated with this style are: objectivity, step-by-step plan, transparency, manufacturability, control, monitoring, agreement is agreement. This project leader is good at organizing the issue and designing a clear plan.

Attention to team functioning is central to the team coach involved. This's aimed at the cooperation of the various team members with the team. Characteristic words associated with this style are: coaching, communication, empathy, creating a sense of we, seduction, atmosphere, recognition, captivating and binding, pride, team spirit, harmony. This project leader is good at inspiring the team.

Attention to the organization is central to the thorough organizer. This's aimed at acceptance of the result, as laid down in the organization chart. Characteristic words associated with this style are procedure, clarity, standing organization, unique, users, consultative bodies, coordination, accountability and transparency. This project leader is good at ensuring that everyone knows what the tasks, responsibilities and powers are.

Attention to the environment is central to the thoughtful negotiator. This's aimed at knowing the interests of the environment in order to arrive at a feasible solution. Characteristic words associated with this style are balance of power, lobbying, support, chess, coalitions, organizing decision-making, feasible solution, consensus, alliances. This project leader is good at bringing together the various interests.

Know your own leadership style

In practice, there will be few project leaders who meet this ideal typology. But if the project leader takes a good look at himself, he'll notice that he / she has a preference for one of the five styles. In practice, the project leader will also fulfill elements of the other styles a little, but his / her strength lies in the preferred style. In addition, depending on the situation, one style is more suitable than the other. We think that if we're aware that there are five styles and recognize what their own preferred style is, it helps in discussing this with the team, with the client and in their own learning process.

Fill in the project employee function

Project or program staff are the power source of any project and program. They do the substantive work, individually or in a team.

Every project or program assignment stands or falls with the employees. They carry out substantive efforts and activities.

Sometimes they work on a project as a team. That doesn't go well by itself. The project employees must then feel jointly responsible, both for the project and for each other's input in it.

Requirements

A good project employee:

- makes the requested contribution and provides the required expertise
- carries out his activities within the plans
- reports solicited and unsolicited on progress, and reports imminent deviations immediately
- recognizes the 'employee paradox': project / program manager and employees are equal to each other; at the same time they differ in tasks, responsibilities and powers
- develops a shared sense of responsibility through communication with other employees
- helps others and allows others to help themselves
- doesn't use rigid procedures, systems and formats, and is prepared to work for several "bosses" at the same time

Points of attention:

- every employee must dare to take up activities that happen to be in nobody's job description
- not doing your best counts, but doing what has been agreed
- in projects and programs, the person who knows doesn't necessarily have the final say

Tasks of the project employee

One of the three core positions in projects is that of the project staff. Their tasks are specified.

Project staff carry out their tasks within the plans and contribute their expertise for this. They feel jointly responsible for the result and involved in the work. Project employees use their willingness and skills, whether or not in a team.

Tasks of the project employee are:

- do their work as workers, representatives, observers or advocates
- to execute the formulated and approved assignments
- using capacity sources from within or outside the organization
- bring in your own expertise
- solicited and unsolicited contributions to substantive issues related to the project
- contribute to coordinating the activities of working groups
- monitor the progress of your own work
- maintain a relationship with the permanent organization
- informing own department management about matters agreed in advance, such as spending on resources and capacity
- help prepare documents for the interim reports to the client
- leading working groups
- match partial results to the total
- contribute to collaborative support functions.

Determine your management style

A project manager influences the performance of his employees based on personal contact. The best style depends on who those employees are and what their work is. Where possible, the management style should encourage independent working.

Leadership is influencing the performance of others based on personal contact. It has to do with organizing, motivating, instructing and delegating. There's no universal best management style. The crux is attunement to the person being led and to the work that the person is to perform.

Employees on projects usually enjoy working independently. Motivation increases as a result. This gives the project leader more space to deal with other things. The style of leadership in projects should therefore encourage independent working as much as possible.

Management styles

- Instructing: prescribing precisely and checking carefully
- Situation: the employee isn't very competent but motivated
- Convince: clear guidance and where necessary emotional support
- Situation: the employee isn't competent and weakly motivated
- Support: barely steering but motivating strongly
- Situation: the employee is competent and weakly motivated
- Delegation: relinquish as much as possible and create conditions
- Situation: the employee is both competent and motivated

Points of attention:

- a good project leader promotes task maturity
- task maturity requires that the project leader:
1. gradually directs less
2. thereby accepts some risk

Gain sufficient power as a project leader

A project leader needs power for his task. Through power he can determine or control the behavior of others to a certain extent.

Power is the ability to determine or direct the behavior of others to some degree. A project leader needs power to do his job. Power is a social given. It's not possible without the recognition of the person (s) over whom the power is exercised. The project leader must realize this in order to gain power.

Requirements

A project leader must:

- gain control over resources such as formation places, money and equipment
- gather information about relevant processes, products and / or services
- establish relationships with formally and informally important persons and bodies
- make people want to identify with him and / or his ideas
- making others believe they depend on him

Points of attention:

- fear is a motive for not doing something
- whoever checks everything sees nothing

trust evokes confidence

- specially improving performance requires quick and positive feedback

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